The Value of Tropical Biodiversity in Rural Melanesia
- Simon Foale College of Arts, James Cook University, Australia
- Michelle Dyer College of Arts, James Cook University, Australia
- Jeff Kinch PNG NFA National Fisheries College, Papua New Guinea
In this paper we discuss differences in the ways transnational conservationists and Melanesian farmers, hunters and fishers value ‘biodiversity’. The money for conservation projects in developing countries originates from people who are embedded in a capitalist system, which allows engagement with nature as an abstract entity. Their western education has given them a scientific/ evolutionary-based worldview, which attributes intrinsic value to all species (and particular arrangements of species, e.g. rainforests and coral reefs), irrespective of economic value or ecosystem function. Because this value system is mostly not shared by the custodians of the biodiversity that conservationists want to save, alternative tactics and arguments are utilised. These inevitably take the form of so-called ‘win-win’ economic rationales for preserving biodiversity, most of which do not work well (e.g. bioprospecting, ecotourism, non-timber forest products, environmental certification schemes, payments for ecosystem services, etc.), for reasons which we detail. Agriculture- and aquaculture-based livelihoods appear to enjoy more success than the ‘win-win’ options but do not necessarily obviate or deter further biodiversity loss. Artisanal use of species-poor but productive and resilient pelagic fisheries is increasing. These ecological and economic realities bring into sharp focus the importance of understanding differences in value systems for successful biodiversity conservation in the tropics.
Adams, William M. 2004. Against Extinction: The Story of Conservation. London: Earthscan.
Albert, Joelle A., Doug Beare, Anee-Maree Schwarz, Simon Albert, Regon Warren, James Teri, Faye Siota, and Neil L. Andrew. 2014. “The Contribution of Nearshore Fish Aggregating Devices (FADs) to Food Security and Livelihoods in Solomon Islands.” Plos One 9(12). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115386
Albert, Simon, Shankar Aswani, Paul L. Fisher, and Joelle Albert. 2015a. “Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.” Plos One 10(7). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130800.
Albert, Joelle A., Andrew D. Olds, Simon Albert, Annabelle Cruz-Trinidad, and Anne-Maree Schwarz. 2015b. “Reaping the Reef: Provisioning Services from Coral Reefs in Solomon Islands.” Marine Policy 62: 244–251. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2015.09.023
Allen, Mark, Jeff Kinch, and Tim Werner. 2003. “Living Coral Reef Resources of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea.” In A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea—Survey II (2000), edited by Gerald R. Allen, Jeff Kinch, Sheila A. McKenna and Pamela Seeto, 56–74. Washington, DC: Conservation International.
Allen, Matthew. 2011. “The Political Economy of Logging in Solomon Islands.” In The Political Economy of Economic Reform in the Pacific, edited by Ron Duncan, 277–302. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
Allen, Matthew. 2013. “Melanesia’s Violent Environments: Towards a Political Ecology of Conflict in the Western Pacific.” Geoforum 44: 152–161. DOI: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2012.09.015
Allen, Matthew G., R. Michael Bourke, and Andrew McGregor. 2009. “Cash Income from Agriculture.” In Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea, 283–424. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Baines, Graham. 2015. “Solomon Islands is Unprepared to Manage a Minerals-Based Economy.” State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Paper, Australian National University 2015/6:20.
Barclay, Kate, and Jeff Kinch. 2013. “Local Capitalisms and Sustainability in Coastal Fisheries: Cases from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands.” In Engaging with Capitalism: Cases from Oceania, edited by Fiona McCormack and Kate Barclay, 107–138. Bingley, UK: Emerald. DOI: 10.1108/S0190-1281(2013)0000033007
Bennett, Judith A. 1987. Wealth of the Solomons. A History of a Pacific Archipelago, 1800-1978. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Bennett, Judith A.. 2000. Pacific Forest: A History of Resource Control and Contest in Solomon Islands, c. 1800-1997. Cambridge: The White Horse Press.
Benson, Scott R., Tomoharu Eguchi, Dave G. Foley, Karin A. Forney, Helen Bailey, Creusa Hitipeuw, Betuel P. Samber, Ricardo F. Tapilatu, Vagi Rei, Peter Ramohia, John Pita, and Peter H. Dutton. 2011. “Large-Scale Movements And High-Use Areas of Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles, Dermochelys Coriacea.” Ecosphere 2(7): 84. DOI: 10.1890/es11-00053.1
Berkes, Fikret. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Philadelphia, PA: Taylor and Francis. DOI: 10.1890/1051-0761(2000)010[1251:ROTEKA]2.0.CO;2
Berkes, Fikret, Johan Colding, and Carl Folke. 2000. “Rediscovery of Traditional Ecological Knowledge as Adaptive Management.” Ecological Applications 10(5): 1251–1262.
Berlin, Brent, Dennis E. Breedlove, and Peter H. Raven. 1973. “General Principles of Classification and Nomenclature in Folk Biology.” American Anthropologist 75: 214–242. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1973.75.1.02a00140
Birkeland, Charles. 1997. “Symbiosis, Fisheries and Economic Development on Coral Reefs.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 12(9): 364–367. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-5347(97)01099-9
Bourke, R. Michael. 2009. “History of Agriculture in Papua New Guinea.” In Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea, edited by R. Michael Bourke and Tracy Harwood, 10–26. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Bourke, R. Michael, and Tracy Harwood (edited by) 2009. Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Bourke, R. Michael, John Gibson, Alan Quartermain, Kate Barclay, Bryant Allen, and Jean Kennedy. 2009. “Food Production, Consumption and Imports.” In Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea, edited by R. Michael Bourke and Tracy Harwood, 129–192. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Bulmer, Ralph N.H. 1967. “Why is the Cassowary Not a Bird? A Problem of Zoological Taxonomy among the Karam of the New Guinea Highlands.” Man (NS) 2(1): 5–25. DOI: 10.2307/2798651
Bulmer, Ralph N.H.. 1982. “Traditional Conservation Practices in Papua New Guinea.” In Traditional Conservation in Papua New Guinea: Implications for Today, edited by Louise Morauta, John Pernetta, and William Heaney, 59–77. Boroko, PNG: Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research.
Büscher, Bram, Sian Sullivan, Katja Neves, Jim Igoe, and Dan Brockington. 2012. “Towards a Synthesized Critique of Neoliberal Biodiversity Conservation.” Capitalism Nature Socialism 23(2): 4–30. DOI: 10.1080/10455752.2012.674149
Caldwell, John, Bruce Missingham, and Jeff Marck. 2001. The Population of Oceania in the Second Millennium. Canberra, ACT: Health Transition Centre, Australian National University.
Cardinale, Massimiliano, Duto Nugroho, and Patrik Jonson. 2011. “Serial Depletion of Fishing Grounds in an Unregulated, Open Access Fishery.” Fisheries Research 108(1): 106–111. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2010.12.007
Carrier, James G. 1987. “Marine Tenure and Conservation in Papua New Guinea.” In The Question of the Commons: The Culture and Ecology of Communal Resources, edited by Bonnie J. McCay and James M. Acheson, 142–167. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
Chapin, Mac. 2004. “A Challenge to Conservationists.” World Watch Magazine November/December 2004: 17–31.
Cohen, Philippa, Scotta Tapala, Alik Rikio, Elton Kukiti, Frederick Sori, Zelda Hilly, Timothy J. Alexander, and Simon Foale. 2014. Developing a Common Understanding of Taxonomy for Fisheries Management in North Vella Lavella, Solomon Islands.” SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 33: 3–12.
Cole, Teju. 2012. “The White-Saviour Industrial Complex.” The Atlantic magazine. March 21, 2012. http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/03/the-white-savior-industrial-complex/254843/. Retrieved 9 July 2015.
Costanza, Robert, and Herman E. Daly. 1992. “Natural Capital and Sustainable Development.” Conservation Biology 6(1): 37–46. DOI: 10.1046/j.1523-1739.1992.610037.x
Costanza, Robert, Ralph dArge, Rudolph deGroot, Stephen Farber, Monica Grasso, Bruce Hannon, Karin Limburg, Shahid Naeem, Robert V. Oneill, Jose Paruelo, Robert G. Raskin, Paul Sutton, and Marjan vandenBelt. 1997. “The Value of the Worlds Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital.” Nature 387(6630): 253–260. DOI: 10.1038/387253a0
Cox, Paul A. 2001. “Ensuring Equitable Benefits: The Falealupo Covenant and the Isolation of Anti-Viral Drug Prostratin from a Samoan Medicinal Plant.” Pharmaceutical Biology 39: 33–40. DOI: 10.1076/phbi.39.s1.33.0001
Curry, George N. 1999. “Markets, Social Embeddedness and Precapitalist Societies: The Case of Village Trade Stores in Papua New Guinea.” Geoforum 30: 285–298. DOI: 10.1016/S0016-7185(99)00020-2
Curry, George N., and G. Koczberski. 2012. “Relational Economies, Social Embeddedness and Valuing Labour in Agrarian Change: An Example from the Developing World.” Geographical Research 50(4): 377–392. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-5871.2011.00733.x
Curry, George, and Gina Koczberski. 2013. “Development Implications of the Engagement with Capitalism: Improving the Social Returns of Development.” In Engaging with Capitalism: Cases from Oceania, edited by Fiona McCormack and Kate Barclay, 335–352. Bingley: Emerald. DOI: 10.1108/S0190-1281(2013)0000033015
Curry, George N., Gina Koczberski, Joachim Lummani, Robert Nailina, Esley Peter, Graham McNally, and Otto Kuaimba. 2015. “A Bridge Too Far? The Influence of Socio-Cultural Values on the Adaptation Responses of Smallholders to a Devastating Pest Outbreak in Cocoa.” Global Environmental Change 35: 1–11. DOI: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.07.012
DABFAR (Department of Agriculture: Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources). 2014. Philippine Fisheries Profile 2014. Diliman, QC: Department of Agriculture: Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.
Dalzell, Paul, and R. A. Ganaden. 1987. “A Review of the Fisheries for Small Pelagic Fishes in Philippine waters.” Philippines Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources: Technical Paper Series 10 (1).
Dalzell, Paul, and D. Pauly. 1990. “Assessment of the Fish Resources of Southeast-Asia, with Emphasis on the Banda and Arafura Seas.”"Netherlands Journal of Sea Research 25(4): 641–650. DOI: 10.1016/0077-7579(90)90086-V
Dalzell, Paul, P. Corpuz, F. Arce, and R. Ganaden. 1990. “Philippine Small Pelagic Fisheries and Their Management.” Aquaculture and Fisheries Management 21: 77–94. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2109.1990.tb00384.x
Davis, Anthony, and Kenneth Ruddle. 2010. “Constructing Confidence: Rational Skepticism and Systematic Enquiry in Local Ecological Knowledge Research.” Ecological Applications 20(3): 880–894. DOI: 10.1890/09-0422.1
Dennett, Glenn, and John Connell. 1988. “Acculturation and Health in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Dissent on Diversity, Diets and Development.” Current Anthropology 29(2): 273–299. DOI: 10.1086/203631
Denoon, Donald. 1997. “Pacific Edens? Myths and Realities of Primitive Affluence.” In The Cambridge History of the Pacific Islanders, edited by Donald Denoon, 80–118. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. DOI: 10.1017/CHOL9780521441957.004
Dowie, Mark. 2011. Conservation Refugees: The Hundred-Year Conflict between Global Conservation and Native Peoples. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Dwyer, Peter D. 1976. “Beetles, Butterflies and Bats: Species Transformation in a New Guinea Folk Classification.” Oceania 46(3): 188–205. DOI: 10.1002/j.1834-4461.1976.tb01242.x
Dyer, Michelle. 2016. “Eating Money: Narratives of Equality on Customary Land in the Context of Natural Resource Extraction Contests in the Solomon Islands.” The Australian Journal of Anthropology. DOI: 10.1111/taja.12213.
Farmer, Paul. 2004. “An Anthropology of Structural Violence.” Current Anthropology 45(3): 305–325. DOI: 10.1086/382250
Filer, Colin 1994. “The Nature of the Human Threat to Papua New Guineas Biodiversity Endowment." In Papua New Guinea Biodiversity Country Study: The Costs and Benefits of Conserving Papua New Guineas Biodiversity, edited by N. Sekhran and S. Miller, 187–199. Port Moresby: Papua New Guinea Department of Environment and Conservation, Conservation Resource Centre.
Filer, Colin. 2000. “How Can Western Conservationists Talk to Melanesian Landowners about Indigenous Knowledge?” Resource Management in Asia-Pacific Working Paper No. 27. Canberra, ACT: Australian National University.
Filer, Colin. 2004. “The Knowledge of Indigenous Desire: Disintegrating Conservation and Development in Papua New Guinea.” In Development and Local Knowledge: New Approaches to Issues in Natural Resources Management, Conservation and Agriculture, edited by Alan Bicker, Paul Sillitoe, and Johan Pottier, 64–92. London: Routledge.
Filer, Colin. 2011a. “Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Historical Ecology and Environmental Policy in Papua New Guinea.” Environmental Conservation 38(2): 256–269. DOI: 10.1017/S0376892910000913
Filer, Colin. 2011b. “The New Land Grab in Papua New Guinea: A Case Study from New Ireland Province.” State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Papers 2011/12: 1–16.
Filer, Colin. 2014. “The Double Movement of Immovable Property Rights in Papua New Guinea.” Journal of Pacific History 49(1): 76–94. DOI: 10.1080/00223344.2013.876158
Filer, Colin, and Martha A. Macintyre. 2006. “Grass Roots and Deep Holes: Community Responses to Mining in Melanesia.” The Contemporary Pacific 18(2): 215–231. DOI: 10.1353/cp.2006.0012
Filer, Colin, and Nikhil Sekhran. 1998. Loggers, Donors and Resource Owners: Policy that Works for Forests and People, edited by James Mayers, Series No. 2. Port Moresby, PNG and London: Papua New Guinea National Research Institute and International Institute for Environment and Development.
Firth, Stewart. 2006. Globalisation and Governance in the Pacific Islands. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Foale, Simon J. 1998. “Whats in a Name? An Analysis of the West Nggela (Solomon Islands) Fish Taxonomy.” SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 9: 2–19.
Foale, Simon J.. 2001. “Wheres Our Development? Landowner Aspirations and Environmentalist Agendas in Western Solomon Islands.” The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology 2(2): 44–67. DOI: 10.1080/14442210110001706105
Foale, Simon J.. 2005. Sharks, Sea Slugs and Skirmishes: Managing Marine and Agricultural Resources on Small, Overpopulated Islands in Milne Bay, PNG. Canberra, ACT: Resource Management in Asia Pacific Program, The Australian National University.
Foale, Simon J., and Martha A. Macintyre. 2005. “Green Fantasies: Photographic Representations of Biodiversity and Ecotourism in the Western Pacific.” Journal of Political Ecology 13: 1–22.
Foale, Simon J., and Bruno Manele. 2004. “Social and Political Barriers to the Use of Marine Protected Areas for Conservation and Fishery Management in Melanesia.” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 45(3): 373–386. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8373.2004.00247.x
Foale, Simon, Philippa Cohen, Stephanie Januchowski, Amelia Wenger, and Martha Macintyre. 2011. “Tenure and Taboos: Origins and Implications for Fisheries in the Pacific.” Fish and Fisheries 12(4): 357–369. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-2979.2010.00395.x
Foster, Robert J. 2005. “Commodity Futures: Labour, Love and Value." Anthropology Today 21(4): 8–12. DOI: 10.1111/j.0268-540X.2005.00366.x
Gabriel, Jennifer, and Michael Wood. 2015. “The Rimbunan Hijau Group in the Forests of Papua New Guinea.” Journal of Pacific History. 50 (3): 322-343. DOI: 10.1080/00223344.2015.1060925
Gay, Daniel. 2009. Solomon Islands Diagonostic Trade Integration Study. Honiara, SI: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and External Trade.
Geertz, Clifford. 1969. “Two Types of Ecosystems.” In Environment and Cultural Behaviour: Ecological Studies in Cultural Anthropology, edited by Andrew P. Vayda, 3–28. New York, NY: Natural History Press.
Gegeo, David., and Karen Ann Watson-Gegeo. 2002. “Whose Knowledge? Epistemological Collisions in Solomon Islands Community Development.” The Contemporary Pacific 14(2): 377–409. DOI: 10.1353/cp.2002.0046
Gehrke, Peter C. 2007. A Comparative Analysis of Coastal Fishery Food Webs in the Great Barrier Reef region. Sydney: NSW: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO).
Goto, Akira. 1996. “Lagoon Life among the Langalanga, Malaita Island, Solomon Islands.” In Coastal Foragers in Transition, edited by Tomoya Akimichi, 11–54. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
Green, Alison, Paul Lokani, William Atu, Peter Ramohia, P. Thomas, and J. Almany. 2006. Solomon Islands Marine Assessment: Technical Report of Survey Conducted May 13 to June 17, 2004. Brisbane, QLD: The Nature Conservancy.
Grove, Richard H. 1990. “The Origins of Environmentalism.” Nature 345 (3 May 1990): 11–14. DOI: 10.1038/345011a0
Grove, Richard H. 1995. Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600-1860. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Helden, Flip van. 1998. Between Cash and Conviction. The Social Context of the Bismark-ramu Integrated Conservation and Development Project. Port Moresby, PNG: National Research Institute.
Henderson, C.P., and I.R. Hancock. 1988. A Guide to the Useful Plants of the Solomon Islands. Honiara, SI: Research Department, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands.
Henry, James S. 2012. The Price of Offshore Revisited. Online: Tax Justice Network. July 2012. http://www.taxjustice.net/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Price_of_Offshore_Revisited_120722.pdf
Hickel, Jason, and Arsalan Khan. 2012. “The Culture of Capitalism and the Crisis of Critique.” Anthropological Quarterly 85(1): 203–227. DOI: 10.1353/anq.2012.0003
Hooper, D. U., F. S. Chapin, J. J. Ewel, A. Hector, P. Inchausti, S. Lavorel, J. H. Lawton, D. M. Lodge, M. Loreau, S. Naeem, B. Schmid, H. Setala, A. J. Symstad, J. Vandermeer, and D. A. Wardle. 2005. “Effects of Biodiversity on Ecosystem Functioning: A Consensus of Current Knowledge.”"Ecological Monographs 75(1): 3–35. DOI: 10.1890/04-0922
Hviding, Edvard. 2005. Reef and Rainforest: An Environmental Encyclopedia of Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands / Kiladi oro vivineidi ria tingitonga pa idere oro pa goana pa Marovo, 2nd ed. Paris: UNESCO—LINKS.
Hviding, Edvard. 2015. “Big Money in the Rural: Wealth and Dispossession in Western Solomons Political Economy.” Journal of Pacific History 50(4): 473–485. DOI: 10.1080/00223344.2015.1101818
Hviding, Edvard, and Tim Bayliss-Smith. 2000. Islands of Rainforest: Agroforestry, Logging and Ecotourism in Solomon Islands. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Igoe, James, and Dan Brockington. 2007. “Neoliberal Conservation: A Brief Introduction.” Conservation and Society 5(4): 424–470.
Ingold, Tim. 1993. “Globes and Spheres: The Topology of Environmentalism. In Environmentalism: The View From Anthropology, edited by Kay Milton, 30–43. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203449653_chapter_2
Jacka, Jerry. 2010. “The Spirits of Conservation: Ecology, Christianity, and Resource Management in Highlands Papua New Guinea.” Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture 4(1): 24–47. DOI. 10.1558/jsrnc.v4i1.24
Jackson, Tim. 2009. Prosperity without Growth: Economics for a Finite Planet. London: Earthscan.
Johannes, Robert E. 1978. “Traditional Marine Conservation Methods in Oceania and Their Demise.” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9: 349–364. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.es.09.110178.002025
Johnson, Peter. 2012. Lode Shedding: A Case Study of the Economic Benefits to the Landowners, the Provincial Government and the State from the Porgera Gold Mine. Background and Financial Flows from the Mine. Port Moresby, PNG: National Research Institute.
Jolly, Margaret, Christine Stewart, and Caroline Baker 2012. Engendering Violence in Papua New Guinea. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Keppel, Gunnar, Clare Morrison, Dick Watling, Marika V. Tuiwawa, and Isaac A. Rounds. 2012. “Conservation in Tropical Pacific Island Countries: Why Most Current Approaches Are Failing.” Conservation Letters 5(4): 256–265. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-263X.2012.00243.x
KIBCA (Kolombangara Biodiversity and Conservation Association). n.d. “Connections between the Environment and the Bible.” Kolombangara Island, SI: Kolombangara Biodiversity and Conservation Association (unpublished Information Sheet).
Kinch, Jeff. 2006. A Socio-Economic Assessment of the Huon Coast Leatherback Turtle Nesting Beach Projects (Labu Tale, Busama, Lababia and Paiawa), Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council.
Kinch, Jeff. 2010. Integrated Coastal and Marine Resource Management in Papua New Guinea: A Review of Lessons and Best Practices. Apia, Samoa: Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Program.
Kinch, Jeff, and Elizabeth A. Burgess. 2009. “An Assessment of the Trade in Hawksbill Turtles in Papua New Guinea.” TRAFFIC Bulletin 22(2): 62–72.
Kirch, Patrick. 1997. “Microcosmic Histories: Island Perspectives on Global Change.” American Anthropologist 99(1): 30–42. DOI: 10.1525/aa.1918.104.22.168
Kirch, Patrick V., and Douglas E. Yen. 1982. Tikopia: The Prehistory and Ecology of a Polynesian Outlier. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.
Koczberski, Gina, and George N. Curry. 2005. “Making a Living: Land Pressures and Changing Livelihood Strategies among Oil Palm Settlers in Papua New Guinea.” Agricultural Systems 85(3): 324–339. DOI: 10.1016/j.agsy.2005.06.014
Koczberski, Gina, George N. Curry, and Veronica Bue. 2012. “Oil Palm, Food Security and Adaptation among Smallholder Households in Papua New Guinea.” Asia Pacific Viewpoint 53(3): 288–299. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8373.2012.01491.x
Kwailoloa, Michael, and Ben Burt. 2001. Na Masuu kia i Kwaraae [Our Forest of Kwaraae]. London: British Museum Press.
Levinson, Stephen C. 2008. “Landscape, Seascape and the Ontology of Places on Rossel Island, Papua New Guinea.” Language Sciences 30(2–3): 256–290. DOI: 10.1016/j.langsci.2006.12.032
McCormack, Fiona, and Kate Barclay. 2013. Engaging with Capitalism: Cases From Oceania. Bingley: Emerald. DOI: 10.1108/S0190-1281(2013)33
McDougall, Debra. 2005. “The Unintended Consequences of Clarification: Development, Disputing, and the Dynamics of Community in Ranongga, Solomon Islands.” Ethnohistory 52(1): 81–109. DOI: 10.1215/00141801-52-1-81
Macintyre, Martha A. 2008. “Police and Thieves, Gunmen and Drunks: Problems with Men and Problems with Society in Papua New Guinea.” Australian Journal of Anthropology 19(2): 179–193. DOI: 10.1111/j.1835-9310.2008.tb00121.x
Macintyre, Martha A.. 2011. “Money Changes Everything: Papua New Guinean Women in the Modern Economy.” In Managing Modernity in the Western Pacific, edited by Mary Patterson and Martha Macintyre, 90–120. St. Lucia: University of Queensland Press.
Macintyre, Martha A.. 2012. “Gender Violence in Melanesia and the Problem of Millennium Development Goal No. 3.” In Engendering Violence in Papua New Guinea, edited by Margaret Jolly and Christine Stewart, 239–266. Canberra, ACT: ANU E Press.
Macintyre, Martha A., and Simon J. Foale. 2004. “Global Imperatives and Local Desires: Competing Economic and Environmental Interests in Melanesian Communities.” In Globalisation and Culture Change in the Pacific Islands, edited by Victoria Lockwood, 149–164. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Macintyre, Martha A., and Simon J. Foale.. 2013.“Science, Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Anthropology: Managing the Impacts of Mining in Papua New Guinea.” Collaborative Research 6: 399–418. DOI: 10.1353/cla.2013.0024
McKenzie, Nick, and Richard Baker. 2014. “PNG Prime Minister Peter ONeill served with arrest warrant related to fraud allegations.” Sydney Morning Herald. Sydney: Fairfax Media. June 16, 2014. http://www.smh.com.au/world/png-prime-minister-peter-oneill-served-with-arrest-warrant-related-to-fraud-allegations-20140616-3a7fm.html.
McKenzie, Nick, Richard Baker, and John Garnaut. 2015. “Steering corrupt cash into Australia from PNG: A how-to guide.” Sydney Morning Herald. June 24, 2015. http://www.smh.com.au/national/steering-corrupt-cash-into-australia-from-png-a-howto-guide-20150622-ghv1sx.html
Macpherson, Crawford Brough. 1962. “Possessive Individualism and Liberal Democracy.” In The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism. Clarendon Press. Pages 46-69.
McShane, Thomas O., Paul D. Hirsch, Tran Chi Trung, Alexander N. Songorwa, Ann Kinzig, Bruno Monteferri, David Mutekanga, Hoang Van Thang, Juan Luis Dammert, Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, Meredith Welch-Devine, J. Peter Brosius, Peter Coppolillo, and Sheila O’Connor. 2011. “Hard Choices: Making Trade-Offs between Biodiversity Conservation and Human Well-Being.” Biological Conservation 144(3): 966–972. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2010.04.038
Majnep, Ian Saem, and Ralph Bulmer. 1977. Birds of My Kalam Country. Auckland: Auckland University Press.
Majnep, Ian Saem, and Ralph Bulmer.. 2007. Animals the Ancestors Hunted: An Account of the Wild Mammals of the Kalam Area, Papua New Guinea, edited by Robin Hide and Andrew Pawley. Adelaide, SA: Crawford House.
Martin, Keir. 2007. “Your Own Buai You Must Buy: The Ideology of Possessive Individualism in Papua New Guinea.” Anthropological Forum 17(3): 285–298. DOI: 10.1080/00664670701637743
Milton, Kay. 2002. Loving Nature: Towards an Ecology of Emotion. London: Routledge. DOI: 10.4324/9780203421413
Moore, Clive. 2008. “Pacific View: The Meaning of Governance and Politics in the Solomon Islands.” Australian Journal of International Affairs 62(3): 386–407. DOI: 10.1080/10357710802286833
Mora, Camilo, Octavio Aburto-Oropeza, Arturo Ayala Bocos, Paula M. Ayotte, Stuart Banks, Andrew G. Bauman, Maria Beger, Sandra Bessudo, David J. Booth, Eran Brokovich, Andrew Brooks, Pascale Chabanet, Joshua E. Cinner, Jorge Cortés, Juan J. Cruz-Motta, Amilcar Cupul Magaña, Edward E. DeMartini, Graham J. Edgar, David A. Feary, Sebastian C. A. Ferse, Alan M. Friedlander, Kevin J. Gaston, Charlotte Gough, Nicholas A. J. Graham, Alison Green, Hector Guzman, Marah Hardt, Michel Kulbicki, Yves Letourneur, Andres López Pérez, Michel Loreau, Yossi Loya, Camilo Martinez, Ismael Mascareñas-Osorio, Tau Morove, Marc-Olivier Nadon, Yohei Nakamura, Gustavo Paredes, Nicholas V. C. Polunin, Morgan S. Pratchett, Héctor Reyes Bonilla, Fernando Rivera, Enric Sala, Stuart A. Sandin, German Soler, Rick Stuart-Smith, Emmanuel Tessier, Derek P. Tittensor, Mark Tupper, Paolo Usseglio, Laurent Vigliola, Laurent Wantiez, Ivor Williams, Shaun K. Wilson, and Fernando A. Zapata. 2011. “Global Human Footprint on the Linkage between Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning in Reef Fishes.” PLoS Biol 9(4): e1000606. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000606
Mousseau, Frédéric, and Peiley Lau. 2015. The Great Timber Heist: The Logging Industry In Papua New Guinea. Oakland, CA: Oakland Institute.
Nelson, P.N., J. Gabriel, C. Filer, M. Banabas, J. A. Sayer, G. N. Curry, G. Koczberski, and O. Venter. 2014. “Oil Palm and Deforestation in Papua New Guinea.” Conservation Letters 7(3): 188–195. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12058
Oczkowski, Autumn J., Scott W. Nixon, Stephen L. Granger, Abdel Fattah M. El-Sayed, and Richard A. McKinney. 2009. “Anthropogenic Enhancement of Egypts Mediterranean Fishery.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(5): 1364–1367. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812568106
Osmond, Meredith, Andrew Pawley, and Malcolm Ross. 2003. “The Seascape.” In The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic, Vol. 2: The Physical Environment, edited by Malcolm Ross, Andrew Pawley, and Meredith Osmond, 87–113. Canberra, ACT: Pacific Linguistics.
Palmer, Meggie. 2015. “Dirty Money: How corrupt PNG cash is reaching Australia.” Dateline: SBS. Airdate: June 23, 2015. http://www.sbs.com.au/news/dateline/story/dirty-money-how-corrupt-png-cash-reaching-australia.
Panoff, Francoise. 1969. “Some Facets of Maenge Horticulture.” Oceania 40(1): 20–31. DOI: 10.1002/j.1834-4461.1969.tb01054.x
Patterson, Mary, and Martha Macintyre. 2011. Managing Modernity in the Western Pacific. St Lucia: University of Queensland Press.
Peekel, P. Gerhard. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for Naturalists. Lae, PNG: Office of Forests, Division of Botany.
Pew Research Center. 2013. “Publics Views on Human Evolution.” Online: Pew Research Center. December 30, 2013. http://www.pewforum.org/2013/12/30/publics-views-on-human-evolution/. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
Polunin, Nicholas V.C. 1984. “Do Traditional Marine ‘Reserves’ Conserve? A View of Indonesian and New Guinean Evidence.” In Maritime Institutions in the Western Pacific, edited by Kenneth Ruddle and Tomoya Akimichi, 267–283. Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.
Porter, Doug, and Matthew Allen. 2015. “The Political Economy of the Transition from Logging to Mining in Solomon Islands.” State, Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Paper, Australian National University (2015/12): 16.
Raworth, Kate. 2012. A Safe and Just Space for Humanity: Can We Live within the Doughnut? Oxford: Oxfam. https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/safe-and-just-space-humanity.
Rist, Gilbert. 2007. “Development as a Buzzword.” Development in Practice 17(4–5): 485–491. DOI: 10.1080/09614520701469328
Robbins, J. 1995. “Dispossessing the Spirits: Christian Transformations of Desire and Ecology among the Urapmin of Papua New Guinea.” Ethnology 34(3): 211–224. DOI: 10.2307/3773824
Robbins, J.. 2004. Becoming Sinners: Christianity and Moral Torment in a Papua New Guinea Society. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Rockstrom, Johan, W. Steffen, K. Noone, A. Persson, F. S. Chapin, E. F. Lambin, T. M. Lenton, M. Scheffer, C. Folke, H. J. Schellnhuber, B. Nykvist, C. A. de Wit, T. Hughes, S. van der Leeuw, H. Rodhe, S. Sorlin, P. K. Snyder, R. Costanza, U. Svedin, M. Falkenmark, L. Karlberg, R. W. Corell, V. J. Fabry, J. Hansen, B. Walker, D. Liverman, K. Richardson, P. Crutzen, and J. A. Foley. 2009. “A Safe Operating Space for Humanity.” Nature (London) 461(7263): 472–475. DOI: 10.1038/461472a
Roeger, Jessica J. 2013. The Production of the Small Pelagic Fishery in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, and its Contribution to Food Security. B.Sc. Honours Dissertation, School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University. 80pp.
Roeger, Jessica, Simon Foale, and Marcus Sheaves. 2016. “When ‘Fishing down the Food Chain’ Results in Improved Food Security: Evidence from a Small Pelagic Fishery in Solomon Islands.” Fisheries Research 174: 250–259. DOI: 10.1016/j.fishres.2015.10.016
Ross, Malcolm, Andrew Pawley, and Meredith Osmond. 2011. The Lexicon of Proto Oceanic: The Culture and Environment of Ancestral Oceanic Society. Vol. 4. Animals. Canberra, ACT: Pacific Linguistics, Australian National University.
Ruddle, Kenneth, and Naomichi Ishige. 2005. Fermented Fish Products in East Asia: IRMI Research Study 1. Hong Kong: International Resources Management Institute.
Russ, Garry R., and Angel C. Alcala. 2010. “Decadal-Scale Rebuilding of Predator Biomass in Philippine Marine Reserves.” Oecologia 163(4): 1103–1106. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-010-1692-3
Schmid, C. 1991. Of People and Plants: Botanical Ethnography of Nokopo Village, Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea. Basel: Vokerunde.
Schoeffel, Penelope. 1997. “Myths of Community Management: Sustainability, the State and Rural Development in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu.” State Society and Governance in Melanesia Discussion Paper 97/8. Canberra, ACT: Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University.
Seventh Day Adventist Church. 2013. Origins: Adult Sabbath School Bible Study Guide, Pacific Edition. Warburton, VIC: Signs Publishing Company.
Shaxson, Nicholas. 2011. Treasure Islands: Tax Havens and the Men Who Stole the World. London: Bodley Head.
Shineberg, Dorothy. 1966. “The Sandalwood Trade in Melanesian Economics, 1841-65.” Journal of Pacific History 1: 129–146. DOI: 10.1080/00223346608572084
Sillitoe, Paul. 2002. “Contested Knowledge, Contingent Classification: Animals in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea.” American Anthropologist 104(4): 1162-1171. DOI: 10.1525/aa.2002.104.4.1162
Steadman, David W. 2006. Extinction and Biogeography of Tropical Pacific Birds. Chicago, IL and London: University of Chicago Press.
Steadman, David W., Gregory K. Pregill, and David V. Burley. 2002. “Rapid Prehistoric Extinction Of Iguanas And Birds in Polynesia.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 99(6): 3673–3677. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.072079299
Sulu, Reuben J., Hampus Eriksson, Anne-Maree Schwarz, Neil L. Andrew, Grace Orirana, Meshach Sukulu, Janet Oeta, Daykin Harohau, Stephen Sibiti, Andrew Toritela, and Douglas Beare. 2015. “Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.” PLoS ONE 10(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143516
Teh, Louise S. L., Lydia C. L. Teh, and U. Rashid Sumaila. 2013. “A Global Estimate of the Number of Coral Reef Fishers.” PLoS ONE 8(6): e65397. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065397
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 2014. Human Development Statistical Tables. New York, NY: UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data, accessed 14 July 2015.
Villanoy, Cesar L., Olivia C. Cabrera, Aletta Yniguez, Marianne Camoying, Asuncion de Guzman, Laura T. David, and Pierre Flament. 2011. “Monsoon-Driven Coastal Upwelling Off Zamboanga Peninsula, Philippines.” Oceanography 24(1): 156–165. DOI: 10.5670/oceanog.2011.12
Weng, Kevin C.M., and John R. Sibert. 1997. Analysis of the Fisheries for Two Pelagic Carangids in Hawaii. Honolulu: Joint Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research, University of Hawaii.
West, Paige. 2006. Conservation Is Our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New Guinea. Durham, NC and London: Duke University Press. DOI: 10.1215/9780822388067
Wilkinson, Richard, and Kate Pickett. 2009. The Spirit Level: Why Equality is Better for Everyone. London: Penguin.
Wilson, Edward O. 1992. The Diversity of Life, new ed. London: Penguin [Original edition, 1992].
Wyatt, Nick, and David Stolper. 2013. Auspoll: Science Literacy in Australia. Canberra, ACT: Australian Academy of Science.
Copyright (c) 2016 Simon Foale, Michelle Dyer, Jeff Kinch
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Authors retain the copyright to their contributions. Linköping University Electronic Press publishes under Creative Commons licence CC-BY-NC, which allows users to distribute the work and to re-work it but not for any commercial purposes, without the author's permission.